Folate is involved in the development of your baby’s neural tube which happens very early on in pregnancy. Commencing a prenatal multivitamin before you conceive helps to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. It is recommended to take a multivitamin containing 400mcg of folic acid at least 1 month prior to conceiving and throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding .
Dietary sources of folate:
Green vegetables: spinach, kale, silverbeet, asparagus
Legumes: lentils, beans, peas and chickpeas
Iodine supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of deficiency which can cause abnormalities to the foetus. These risks are preventable by supplementing with iodine, and although you can get iodine from food, many diets do not include enough to support a healthy pregnancy .
Dietary sources of iodine:
Seaweed, dairy, iodized salt, seafood, eggs, prunes and lima beans
Iron is needed for haemoglobin production (oxygen transport) & neural development. Requirements during pregnancy increase from 17mg to 27mg, however your prenatal multivitamin should cover this increase if you eat a well-balanced diet adequate in iron. Taking additional iron is not always necessary and can cause toxic effects in high doses. For this reason, it is important never to supplement with extra iron without having a blood test to confirm iron deficiency .
Dietary sources of iron:
Red meat, beans and lentils, dark green leafy greens
DHA found in omega-3 is essential throughout your entire pregnancy and postpartum for the development of your baby’s brain, eyes and nervous system. Studies show that taking an omega-3 supplement during pregnancy may reduce the risk for pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and low birth weight .
Dietary sources of DHA:
Fish: salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel, herring
Drinking enough water is important during pregnancy as your body needs extra hydration to form the placenta and amniotic fluid which feed nutrients to your baby. You also need water for the extra blood volume and new tissues that you are building. Pregnant women should aim to drink at least 8-12 glasses of water a day .
You should consider avoiding as many of the following as possible throughout your pregnancy, for some of the reasons listed below.
|What to avoid
||Alcohol is toxic and can retard fetal brain development, body growth and cause circulatory problems.
||Restricts oxygen and fetal blood delivery, increases blood pressure, restricts growth of organs and damages immune system. Exposure to second hand smoke increase chemical toxins in your bloodstream, which cross the placenta.
||Many recreational drugs and medications can cause irreversible birth defects.
||Low amounts are suitable (less than 200mg per day) which is around 1-2 cups of coffee or tea. Higher amounts can affect development and increase risk of maternal complications. Restrict caffeine intake to 1 cup of tea or coffee a day.
|Fish with high mercury content (shark, flake, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, barramundi, ling)
||Mercury from regularly consuming some types of fish can significantly impair development, especially brain formation. Reduce intake to once a fortnight during pregnancy. Salmon, canned tuna or prawns are a good substitute.
|Raw seafood/fish & Undercooked (rare) meat
||May contain bacteria that can cross the placental barrier and harm your unborn baby, even though you may not be affected. Avoid eating raw seafood and fish and ensure that chicken, beef, pork are cooked properly.
|Processed meats, hams and unpasteurized products (soft cheeses)
||May contain bacteria that are harmful to your baby. Always check the expiration dates on product packaging.
|Food handing (raw meat, chicken, unwashed salads, vegetables); exposure to soil, cat litter
||Can increase risk of harmful bacterial infections. Take extra care when preparing food or gardening. Always wash hands with soap straight after or use gloves.
Remember that all nutrients are important and eating a balanced diet is the best way to support a healthy pregnancy.
For additional information, here is a list of important vitamins and minerals that play a role in early pregnancy.
|Folic acid (folate)
||Green leafy vegetables
||Early brain and heart development, DNA synthesis, rapid cell division in all fetal organs
|Implantation, general cell development, differentiation and growth, tissue healing
|Placenta formation, metabolic processes, gene transcription and regulation of important developmental stages
|Haemoglobin production (oxygen transport) & neural development.
|Neural tube development, general cell development. Important for red blood cell production (fetal circulation)
|Brain, neural development, general growth, metabolism
|Omega-3 fatty acids (DHA & EPA)
|Brain & neural development, early behaviour, general growth
|Cell and protein metabolism, increase iron absorption, antioxidant support
|Antioxidant support, cell growth and development
Nuts & seeds
Meat & seafood
|Cell & tissue development (skeletal formation)
|Skeletal formation, regulate circulatory system
|Antioxidant protection, eye development, general growth and development